Basic structure for most business databases:
||DOI or URL
Author, A., & Author, B. B.
(2020, September 18-21).
(2020, September 30-October 3).
|Title of document [Type of document].
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of page in italics (Number if available) [Descriptive text if needed]. Database name. https://www.databasehomepage.com
Many business sources contain tables, charts, data sets, and other non-standard types of information. General guidelines:
- If no author, use a corporate author or group name (e.g. company, association, or group responsible for the content).
- If no publication date, use the abbreviation (n.d.) -- both in your References and your in-text citation -- for "no date."
- Retrieval dates are only needed in two circumstances: if the content is unarchived AND is designed to change over time (e.g. financial data updated quarterly or yearly).
- If the information is from a free website (such as a .gov website, i.e. not a subscription database) and the URL appears stable, include that.
- Do not include database information for works obtained from most academic research databases.
Because the APA style manual does not provide examples for every single type of resource, these examples have been adapted for common business resources. If you are unsure of how to cite a source, get in touch with one of the Reference Librarians or send a message to firstname.lastname@example.org.