The entries in the reference list are usually arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author listed on the source.
When ordering several works by the same author, the entries are arranged by year of publication, the earliest first.
Group authors, such as organization or associations, are alphabetized by the first significant word of the name.
If there is no author, move the title in the author position, then alphabetize by the first significant word of the title (skip the articles the, a, an).
In general, a reference has the following four elements:
For authors or editors, follow the rules listed on this page.
The publication date is always the second element of the entry and is enclosed in parentheses. The date is usually the year of publication, but for magazines and newspaper the exact date is required (year, month and day). If no date is available, write n.d. in parentheses.
Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle in article or chapter titles. Titles of longer works, such as books and periodicals, are italicized.
If other information is required for the identification and retrieval of the source, it can be added in brackets immediately after the title (i.e. [Audio podcast], [Motion picture], etc.).
The following information applies to all kinds of sources.
When you cite a work by one single author, list the author's last name followed by the initial of the first name.
Author, A. A.
When you cite a work by two authors, list the names in the order they appear in the original source and invert all authors' names. The first name is always given as initials.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.
Jansen, M. B., & Rozman, G.
When you cite a work by three to seven authors, list the names in the order they appear in the original source and invert all authors' names. The first name is always given as initials. The last name is preceded by the symbol "&".
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., & Author, D. D.
Chatenoud L., Negri E., La Vecchia C., Volpato O., & Franceschi S.
When you cite a work by eight or more authors, list the names of the first six authors, then insert three ellipses (. . .), and add the last author's name.
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., . . . Author, X. X.
Hosking W., Borland R., Yong H. H., Fong G., Zanna M., Laux F., . . . Omar M.
When you cite a work by a group author (organization, institution, etc.), spell out the full name of the group author.
Group as Author.
Council on Foreign Affairs.
When you cite a work whose author is not identified, move the title of the source to the author position, before the publication date.
Title of source. (Publication date).
A game of dare: Confronting intolerance in Pakistan. (2016, March 5).
In a reference to an edited book, place the editors' names in the author position followed by the abbreviation Ed. or Eds. in parentheses.
Editor, A. A. (Ed.).
LeGates, R. T., & Stout, F. (Eds.).
When you cite two or more sources by the same author, the entries are arranged by publication year, the earliest first.
Author, A. A. (Earliest Year).
Author, A. A. (Latest Year).
Herzfeld, M. (2009).
Herzfeld, M. (2010).
When you cite two or more sources by the same author that are published in the same year, the entries are arranged in alphabetical order by title, and lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.) are placed immediately after the publication year within the parentheses.
Author, A. A. (Yeara). ATitle...
Author, A. A. (Yearb). BTitle...
Herzfeld, M. (2009a). Evicted from eternity ...
Herzfeld, M. (2009b). The performance of secrecy ...