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John Cabot University acknowledges and respects Italian and US copyright laws. The major law regulating reproduction and distribution of protected works in Italy is Law No. 633 of April 22, 1941, on the Protection of Copyright and Neighboring Rights.

Copyright issues are very complex, especially for an academic institution operating in a transnational environment. American users should note that the US tradition of "fair use" has no equivalent in Italian law, which provides very limited exceptions for teaching and research. Therefore we encourage all users to ask for information before doing anything that may result in copyright infringement.

The following table illustrates the most common lawful practices for John Cabot University.


Article 68, § 3-5 states that a single batch of photocopies from original works held by the Library can be made within the limit of 15% of the original (advertisement pages are not included in the count). Rare and out-of-print works can be copied entirely.

Notes: as per Article 181-ter, libraries pay a private copying levy. For John Cabot University the yearly amount is established by the SIAE-AACUPI Agreement.


Article 69, § 1 grants borrowing rights to library users, with a limitation for audiovisual materials which are subject to an 18-month embargo from their distribution date or a 24-month embargo from their creation date.


Small excerpts can occasionally be distributed in class according to Article 70, § 1, on condition that full citation of sources used is included (§ 3).

Article 22 of the Regolamento per l'esecuzione della L. 22 aprile 1941, n. 633 sets the following limits: 

  • Prose: 12,000 characters
  • Poetry: 180 verses (plus additional 30 if necessary)
  • Music: 20 measures
  • Film: 50 meters 



Multiple batches of photocopies for course packs can be done through John Cabot University’s CLEARedi educational license, which is managed by the Library. CLEARedi operates on behalf of Italian rights holders and in conjunction with sister foreign organizations to clear multiple reproduction rights not permitted by the law. The License covers:

Publishers generally limit authorizations to 15% of the original. When copies exceed this limit, a special permission must be requested to either CLEARedi or the publisher.

If interested in creating a course pack, Faculty are required to submit a detailed bibliography to the Librarians, who will then check right holders' authorizations, put readings together, send them to an authorized copy center, and account for due royalties.


Even when publicly available on the Internet, online resources are still subject to copyright protection, and can be reproduced  on websites, intranet sites, and course management systems only if it is explicitly permitted in their copyright notice. 

It is preferable to link to the original source, rather than copying it. However, content owners can also set restricted linking policies which will need to be checked.

The publication of small excerpts for critical analysis, research and teaching is regulated by Article 70, whose paragraph 1-bis allows low-resolution, low-grade images and music to be posted on the web, strictly for non-commercial use.


Reproduction of materials available in library databases is regulated by terms of use in each vendor's license. The partial reproduction for personal, non-commercial use is authorized. Publication on websites, intranet sites, and course management systems is normally not permitted, while linking to the original source is allowed, with some restrictions from a few publishers.